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GMAT阅读经典高频拟真难题实例讲解:During the nineteenth century...

2018年04月16日18:44 来源:小站整理
参与(1) 阅读(152)
摘要:GMAT阅读部分的难度一直都被认为比较高,特别是一些高频题型常会让缺乏解题思路和技巧的考生觉得头疼。本文将结合实例讲解GMAT阅读中的经典高频拟真难题思路技巧,帮助大家提升阅读得分效率和解题速度。本题内容:During the nineteenth century, occupational information about women...

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GMAT阅读经典高频拟真难题实例讲解:During the nineteenth century...图1

今日练习题为阅读题,题目如下

文章:

During the nineteenth century, occupational information about women that was provided by the United States census-a population count conducted each decade-became more detailed and precise in response to social changes. Through 1840, simple enumeration by household mirrored a home-based agricultural economy and hierarchical social order: the head of the household (presumed male or absent) was specified by name, whereas other household members were only indicated by the total number of persons counted in various categories, including occupational categories. Like farms, most enterprises were family-run, so that the census measured economic activity as an attribute of the entire household, rather than of individuals.

The 1850 census, partly responding to antislavery and women's rights movements, initiated the collection of specific information about each individual in a household. Not until 1870 was occupational information analyzed by gender: the census superintendent reported 1.8 million women employed outside the home in "gainful and reputable occupations". In addition, he arbitrarily attributed to each family one woman "keeping house". Overlap between the two groups was not calculated until 1890, when the rapid entry of women into the paid labor force and social issues arising from industrialization were causing women's advocates and women statisticians to press for more thorough and accurate accounting of women's occupations and wages.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A explain and critique the methods used by early statisticians

B compare and contrast a historical situation with a current-day one

C describe and explain a historical change

D discuss historical opposition to an established institution

E trace the origin of a contemporary controversy

正确答案:

C

题目详解:

题目释义:

主旨题目

考点:

主旨(Main idea)

旨在考察我们对文章整体的把握程度,对文章的结构的分析能力和把控能力,以及对作者逻辑的判断。

选项分析:

(A) 解释和批判统计学家统计的方法。作者采取的是陈述方法,或是描述。不带有明显的个人主观色彩。

(B) 比较历史的一个情形和现在的一个情形。文中讲述的都是19世纪的职业信息情况,没有和现在联系起来。

(C) Correct。描述和解释一个历史上的变化。文章第一句就提到了,什么什么是为了应对或回应“social change” 这必然是一个历史性的“change”。作者写这篇文章的主要意思即是要展示和描述这个逐步完善的职业信息的过程。此作者不带有明显的个人意见,而是以描述为主。

(D) 讨论历史上对一个已有制度异议。作者并没有讨论一个已有制度。

(E) 追溯一个争论的起源。文章中并没有什么争论,而是一项信息的逐步完善的过程。

2. Each of the following aspects of nineteenth-century United States censuses is mentioned in the passage EXCEPT the

A year in which data on occupations began to be analyzed by gender

B year in which specific information began to be collected on individuals in addition to the head of the household

C year in which overlap between women employed outside the home and women keeping house was first calculated

D way in which the 1890 census measured women’s income levels and educational backgrounds

E way in which household members were counted in the 1840 census

正确答案:

D

题目详解:

题目释义:

细节题目

考点:

支持主题(Supporting ideas)

旨在考察我们对文章细节的认知。

因为文中所讨论的年份是1840~1890,都属于19世纪,所以该题目的细节几乎涉及整篇文章。定位比较困难,如果一定要定位,可以定位在第一句以后的整篇文章。注意题目问的是“except”

选项分析:

(A) 职业数据开始被按性别来分析的年份。原文第二段找到此句“Not until 1870 was occupational information analyzed by gender:”。

(B) 除掉每个家庭的首脑的具体信息外开始编写每个人的具体信息的年份。原文第二段第一句“The 1850 census initiated the collection of specific information about each individual in a household. ”。

(C) 第一次计算两类人(在家的女人和在外工作的女人)重叠部分信息的年份。因为“census superintendent”是任意指定的一名在家的女人,所以很有可能这个女人其实是在外工作的,所以这两类人有重叠部分。原文第二段找到此句“Overlap between the two groups was not calculated until 1890”。友情提醒,overlap属于抽象动词(当然,在这篇文章中是名词),往往作为”可能考点”出现, 阅读时应该注意此类词。

(D) Correct。1890年人口普查测定收入和教育背景的方法。原文中没有提到测定收入一说(最后一句的wage只是说明了要求精确计算,没有提及如何计算),更没有提到教育背景。

(E) 1840年的普查计算家庭成员的方法。原文第一段第二句解释了计算的方法(simple enumeration)。第三句还有个例子。

3. The passage suggests which of the following about the "women’s advocates and women statisticians" mentioned in highlight text?

A They wanted to call attention to the lack of pay for women who worked in the home.

B They believed that previous census information was inadequate and did not reflect certain economic changes in the United States.

C They had begun to press for changes in census-taking methods as part of their participation in the antislavery movement.

D They thought that census statistics about women would be more accurate if more women were employed as census officials.

E They had conducted independent studies that disputed the official statistics provided by previous United States censuses.

正确答案:

B

题目详解:

题目释义:

细节题目

考点:

逻辑结构(Logical structure)

旨在考察我们对作者写作目的更深层次的认识,以及文章本身的逻辑

该题应该定位在出现在高亮部分位置的那句话并联系整个文章的基调与背景解题。

选项分析:

(A) 他们希望引起人们对在家的女人收入少这一问题的注意。整篇文章从没提到过在家的女人收入少(最后一句也只是说要精确计算)。虽然这可能是实际情况,但是文中不提就可以当做这个情况根本不存在。千万不要引入个人的思想,个人的常识于答题之中。

(B) Correct。他们认为以前的普查信息是不全面的,也不能反应某些美国的经济变化。这个貌似翻译过来就显而易见了。“女性倡议者和女性统计学家”的行为的起因是一种entry(原文:the rapid entry…cause…)。而这个entry就是一个描述美国社会女性地位的变化的词,和B选项恰好对应。

(C) 他们开始要求让普查的方法进行改变并以此来作为他们参与反奴隶制度的一部分。从文中我们无从得知这些人是否参加了反奴隶制度。作为一部分这说在文中也无法找到。另外,这些女性统计学家并没有要求方法改变,而是要求考虑的更加全面,即考虑“overlap”。

(D) 他们认为如果女性更多的聘请为普查官员,那么普查将会更准确。这个选项的杜撰成分很足,文中找不到这样的说辞。

(E) 他们正在进行独立的有悖于以前统计数据研究。文中最后一句说他们“press”统计人员给出一个更为彻底的,精确的计算,并没有提及他们自己要去做一个独立的研究。

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