- 2017年11月03日18:31 来源：小站教育作者：orangejojo
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Though artist Chuck Close has devoted his life to portraiture, his paintings rarely comport with that genre's traditional purpose. His early photorealist images, which are created by overlaying a grid on a photograph and painstakingly copying the image cell by cell, are, to the naked eye, nearly undifferentiable from photographs. Furthermore. Close's emphasis is on the disembodied head itself, expressionless and devoid of any overt personality. He has never acceded to commissions, relying on both his own image and his friends as models. In 1988, a collapsed spinal artery caused almost total paralysis, but Close has continued to work. His freer paintings evince a natural extension of an augmented interest in the minute grid over the total work that predated his illness. This nonprivileging of any particular part of the canvas finds its inspiration, oddly enough, in abstract expressionism, despite the apparent inconso-nance of the two techniques.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
Which of the following statements are supported by the passage?
A. Close’s portraits are so realistic that they are sometimes mistaken for photographs.
B. There are conceptual connections between Close’s later work and other, apparently dissimilar works.
C. Throughout his career as an artist, none of the portraits Close has painted have been done in exchange for money.
这里要注意一点，commission在本题的意思, 并不是佣金, 而是委托的意思. 作为一个肖像画的画家, Chuck Close并没有接受过其他委托, 因此的他的模特是本人或者是朋友. 而文章中并没有说明他的画有没有被卖掉, 因此C的选项是错误的. A之所以也是错误是因为文章只说了是 near indifferentiable. 并没有提到有人被画, 这里就信息混乱。
The anti-foundationalist belief that there is no secure basis for knowledge was worked out philosophically in the somewhat wearisome tracts of Jacques Derrida. Difference. Derrida tells us is the idea that any attempts to discuss universal features of human nature are merely products of local standards, often serving the vested interests of the status quo, and should rightly be dismantled and critiqued. Derrida was considered the originator of a profound challenge to the history of human thought. However, a century before Derrida. Darwin's theory of natural selection had made anti-foundationalism almost an inevitable consequence. From an evolutionary point of view, our understanding of the world depends on earlier and less-developed forms of understanding; meaning is continuously referred or deferred to other terms or experiences.
The passage implies that which of the following beliefs is embraced by anti-foundationalists?
A. In many cases humans cannot be completely secure in thinking that they fully understand a given situation.
B. The meaning of an experience can best be understood outside the cultural context in which it occurs.
C. Those who are part of the status quo are best able to dismantle and critique society.
D. Derrida’s work would not have been possible without the prior ruminations of Darwin a century earlier.
E. Darwin’s faith in the status quo is sufficient grounds to develop universal truths about cultural experiences.
作者认为anti-f的人认为there is no secure basis for knowledge，所以A是正确的。并且，作者认为，D的观点是关于人类本性的通性的任何说法都是基于local standards，所以说要想理解，就一定要基于文化背景，所以B是错的。C错误的引用了文章的信息。至于D，尽管文章说达尔文的理论使得Derrida的理论顺理成章的正确，但是D选项的说法太过于绝对。E选项是混淆选项，这个选项与anti-f的理论并没有什么关系。